Rocket technology -Rockets |About Rocket |
Rocket (English: Rocket) is a special type of circulation technique. This is a kind of place where the producers produced by the chemical power burns are thrown out of the way to the emission of the vehicle, and due to the power generated, the rocket progresses strongly in the opposite direction. In this case, the third source of Newton’s motion was followed. So this formula can be identified as the principle of rocket engines. Rocket engine works with the feedback engine. The introduction of this engine is difficult, fluid can be different.
All of you know that one of the most significant events in the history of the world is the victory of man. But this win is not easy at all. Rather, people had to face numerous obstacles and problems to win the world. Such as-
- Air pollution
- Excessive heat-related problems
- Can not use the same space shuttle twice
- Orbital problems
- Problems caused by meteors and debris
- Harmful cosmic and solar radiation
- Toileting problems in a weaker environment
But the biggest problem is to get the energy needed to launch the spacecraft from the Earth. And the solution to this problem arose as a rocket.
The rocket engine and its fuel system are so complex that now only three countries have been able to send people in orbit. In this essay, we will not only know how rocket engines work but also discuss solutions to some of the problems surrounding it. Let’s start with the fury.
Let me tell someone what is going on in front of our eyes to think of a motor or engine? Hmmm … okay. Some of the twists are floating up. If we look at a gasoline-powered car engine like this, then we see that the engine is rotating the wheels of the car through rotating power. If you look at an electric fan, you will see that the electric motor rotates the wings of the fan by creating the rotation power. Similarly, the steam engines, steam turbines, gas turbines also work depending on the rotation power.
However, rocket engines are quite different. You must know the third formula of Newton’s motion … that every action has an equal but retrograde reaction … it uses rockets.
That means the rocket hit the ground with the energy produced by burning the fuel and the earth pushed it into reaction. The rocket at the front of the huge speed, pushing forward.
What? Is there a problem to understand? Stand up, easy to say. Those of you who fall in the upper class may think that the rocket is pushing the surface with the power, with the same amount of energy, if the surface is pushing the rocket on the opposite side, then the plunge will be stopped in the minas and the rocket remains in place. Do not worry, your question will be answered in front of the discussion.
Let’s try to clarify the fact that after some practical examples of Newton’s third formula,
- If you ever run a shotgun (especially a large-scale twilight gauge shotgun, which is to be shot on the shoulder), you should know that with a shotgun the bullet fits with the shotgun, the part of your shoulder is a shock. This shock is the reaction. Now suppose you shot a shotgun at a speed of 700 kilometers per hour, weighing 1 ounce to one bullet, now if you throw the bullet on a boat, then you see the boat with you running like a rocket in the opposite direction.
- When you see the fire service staff fire, you can see that they use two bigger pipes to throw fire into the fire. Ever wondered why? Because the pipe acts like a rocket engine while throwing water. If firefighters were standing on a boat and firing a fire with that pipe, the boat would run towards the opposite side at a huge speed.
- You must have seen a balloon blossomed off and its mouth was left untied until it got flown up till the ball inside the balloon was finished. You can understand that the third formula of Newton’s motion works here.
Action, feedback, and a football
Imagine you are beside a steady space in space with a space town and a football with you. Suppose you throw the football on one side, as well as your body will move on the opposite side. The speed of your departure will depend on the amount of acceleration that can be gained due to the weight and weight of the football.
If we multiply the power by acceleration, then we get strength (F = ma). Now the force that you have thrown into the ball, the ball will push your body with the same amount of energy (ma = ma). If the weight of the ball is 1 pound, You tossed the pound and the ball at a speed of 32 feet per second (21 miles per hour). That means you toss a football weighing 1 pound in a way that is moving forward at 21 miles per hour. Football also hurts you as a reaction, but your body is 100 times heavier than the ball. And that’s why you have to move 100% of the speed of football to 1% of the speed. That means your speed will be 0.32 ft by 2 seconds or 0.21 mile per hour. (Now I can understand why after rocketing the earth at the start of the launch, why did the rocket stop and move upwardly?)
Now if you want football to push you more loudly, then you can do only two things – either you have to increase the mass of the ball, nor will it increase its acceleration. You can throw more heavy balls or knock them one by one (for mass enhancement) or throwing the ball relatively fast (to increase the acceleration). But it is not possible for you to do more.
A rocket engine usually pushes the mass of high-pressure gas. The engine wants to grease the gas on one side and get feedback on the other side. The energy that the rocket engine burns, actually comes from the weight of the fuel. The process of burning this fuel increases the fuel intensity so that it comes out at high speed with the back part of the rocket. Since the fuel is solid or liquid from the liquid before use, then there is no change in its mass during burning. If you burn 1 pound of rocket fuel, then it will come out with the back part of the rocket at just 1 lb high temperature and high-speed gas. The shape is changing, but the mass never changes. This is the process of burning, it increases the acceleration of the mass. Do you understand
The power of the rocket is called its power. In the United States, measuring heat is measured in pounds. 1 hour = 4.4 Newton in metric mode. To hold an object weighing 1 pound against Earth’s gravity requires one pound volume. The speed of an object dropping freely in the earth increases by 9.8 meters per second. Now hold that you are playing football with a bag, and you throw a ball at every speed of 21 miles per hour.
Then the balls will be equal to every second but you will push 1 pound on the opposite side of the ball. If you throw balls up to 42 miles per hour, then in response, the balls will push you back to the opposite side by gaining 2 pounds per second. If you hit the ball at 2100 miles per hour (in this case, you need to use a big gun to throw the football), then they will push you 100 pounds per second. The more you push the balls as you throw them, the balls will push you too.
Now, let’s say you want to create a hundred pounds of 1 hour. What do you have to do? One hour weighing one pound weighing 200 milligrams per hour must be thrown in every second. That means you have to throw 3600 balls in 1 hour. Or weighing 3600 lb, a ball weighs 20000 miles. Here’s one thing to look at, with your spacer, you weigh only 100 pounds but you need a total of 3600 pounds of football for an hour. And that’s why a huge spacecraft needs huge amounts of energy to send a minor to space.
If you have seen a space shuttle launch on the TV or in some other way, then you know there are three parts of a space shuttle. –
- Extra Large Tanks
- Two Solid Rocket Booster
The weight of an empty orbiter is usually 1,65,000 pounds. The empty tanks weighed 78 thousand and 100 pounds. On the other hand, the weight of the two solid rocket boosters is 1 lakh 85 thousand pounds. So once you see how much can be the fuel weight of a rocket !! It is surprising to hear that every rocket booster carries 1.1 million pounds of fuel. Liquid hydrogen carrying 1 lakh 43 thousand gallons (13.59 thousand pounds) of liquid oxygen and 3.83 thousand gallons (2,626,000 lb) of liquid hydrogen carrying an additional tank. During the launch, the weight of the rocket with fuel without the orbiter was 4.4 million pounds. For an object of 4.4 million pounds, another object of 1.65 billion pounds is very difficult to carry in space. The orbiter weighs 20 times more than the weight of the fuel to carry the rocket. But to tell the truth, Orbiter himself can carry a maximum weight of 65,000 pounds. But still, the problem for the entire rocket is still difficult.
Generally, the fuel is thrown around 6000 miles per hour in the back of the space shuttle. During the launch, solid rocket boosters burn up every 2 minutes and generate around 3.3 million pounds. The rocket’s main three engines (which use extra tank fuel) burn every 8 minutes to burn 3,75,000 pounds.
Dry fuel-powered rockets and mixed fuel:
The first engine made by humans is the solid-fuel engine. It was first invented in China almost 200 years ago and has been used since then. One of the Chinese national anthems written in 1800 is “the rocket’s red glare”! From this, it is understood that rockets have been used for the bombing of long ago.
The process of creating dry fuel rockets is quite simple. What we have to make is an instrument that will burn the fuel very quickly but will not explode. You must know that the Gunpowder is an excellent explosive. It has 75% nitrate, 15% carbon and 10% sulfur. In the rocket engine, we want to burn more fuel than the explosion of the fuel and make more power. For this, we have to make some changes to the mix. 72% nitrate, 24% carbon and 4% sulfur will be used. In this case, the mixer will not be a gun powder, rocket fuel or rocket fuel. If properly loaded, the mix will burn very fast but will never cause a blast.
The rocket that you see on the side of the booster has not burned yet. The dry fuel looks green here When the fuel is lit, it will burn with tube walls. If the fuel did not run out then the fire would have gone until the casing. In the case of small-size rockets, the burning process lasted for 1 second or less. The dry fuel tank of a large space shuttle, which contains several million pounds of fuel, burns the whole fuel for a maximum of 2 minutes.
Channel configuration of dry fuel rocket:
When you want to know about the more advanced rocket fuel powered by dry fuel, then the fuel mixture in each booster will contain aluminum perchlorate (oxidative, 69.6 percent), aluminum (fuel, 16 percent), iron oxide (catalyst, 0.4 percent), a polymer (Which holds the whole mix together, 12.04 percent) and an epoxy curing agent (1.96 percent). The engine’s propeller looks like an 11-point star.
Due to this configuration, the rocket was hit with Ignition immediately. And within 50 seconds of the flight, the scam came down to one-third. As a result, the rocket can be saved from the next stress-related damage!
Increasing the level of burning increases the volume of the channel’s surface and also leads to increased channel surface area. As a result of burning fuel, the shape becomes like a circle once. This whole process helps to create more and less power as needed by a solid rocket booster engine.
Three important advantages of dry fuel-powered rocket engines are:
- Simple structure
- Low cost
But there are two disadvantages of this type of engine-
- The power can not be controlled
- The engine can not be stopped or restarted once it is launched
This means that only a few small works can be done with a dry fuel-powered rocket engine. Throwing missiles such as this. There is no alternative to liquid fuel to control the engine. So let’s now try to know about the fuel-powered rocket-
Liquid fuel-driven rocket
In 1926, Robert Goddard runs the first liquid fuel-powered rocket engine. His engine used gasoline and liquid oxygen.
How Rockets Work: The guard with fluid powered engines
He works with some major problems in the rocket engine (such as pressure control, heat treatment, motion control) and in some cases is also successful. And these were the main problems of liquid fuel-powered rocket engines.
Goddard’s Idea is quite easy. For most liquid fuel-powered rocket engines, one type of fuel and a corrosive (eg gasoline and liquid oxygen) are entered into a combustion chamber. There is a high vapor of hot gases and they are burnt to create high pressure. Then the gas has to come through a nozzle, which makes the gas more dynamic (5 thousand to 10 thousand miles per hour), then they come out of the engine. See the picture below, it will make the concept more clear-
This diagram does not really reveal the complexity of the rocket engine. One of the main problems of liquid fuel-powered engines is to reduce the heat of the nozzle and combustion chambers because the fluid used in this work is prevalent in relatively warmer parts. Pumps have to be put more pressure to avoid the high pressure caused by burning fuel in the combustion chamber. In any space shuttle, the fuel-powered rocket actually completes the work of two-step pumping. One is to burn the fuel and heal the nozzle and burn chamber heat.
The fuel mixture used in the liquid fuel-powered rocket engines is –
- Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen – used in the original engine of the space shuttle
- Gasoline and Liquid Oxygen – Used in rocket engines in the early Godard
- Kerosene and Liquid Oxygen – used in the Apollo program’s Saturn V Rocket Booster
- Alcohol and Liquid Oxygen – Used in German V. Rocket
- Nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrogen – used in the casino engine
The future of rocket engines
We have actually been used to seeing the chemical burns that burn the fuel, but there are many other ways to create a wound. If you can pick up a new technique to throw a football at a much faster pace, then you can be sure that you have been able to discover a whole new type of rocket engine. But the only problem with this kind of effort is that of football in space (in this case high speed) Xhostusta streaming. For this reason, rocket engine designers were forced to prefer gas.
There are many rocket engines, whose size is quite small. For example, in the case of satellites, the rocket engine generally does not have to generate too much power. The engine that is used on most of the satellites does not use any fuel, it also produces nitrogen gas through a direct tank, through the nozzle, it leads to the front. This method is used in the orbit of ‘skylab’ and is often used in the human shuttle.
Currently, rocket engine designers are trying to try out the technique to generate more power using ions or nuclear particles. The first Ion engine used in NASA’s “Deep Space-1” spacecraft.
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